BACKGROUND OF THE WAR:
1962, The year during which India got defeated by China.Then the moment came when Pakistan army took Indian army so lightly and in a thought that India becomes morally weak, Other hand America came to shake their hands with Pakistan during Cold War (1950).America started supplying modern weapons like fighter plans, Tanks, artery guns. So Pakistan thought that this was the best
a situation to attack India to capture Kashmir.
This was the worst situation for India due to death of P.M Jawahar Lal Nehru and Indian economic scenario become weak.
At the time of war president of Pakistan was Ayub Khan and prime minister of India was Lal Bahadur Shastri.
STARTING OF WAR :
April 1965, little disputes started at kutch because the Sir Creek area border was not defined properly both countries were claiming over that area but after the interference of England, India was ready to talk in conference table, due to this Pakistan thought if they capture a little bit area of India then India will also ready of talk on the issue of Kashmir and the Pakistani army planning to attack kashmir to capture it.
The main objective of Pakistan was to create an unrest, armed struggle in Kashmir and turn people of Kashmir against the Indian government. They want to capture entire Kashmir. A Pakistani General of this war disclosed the reason behind this war in his self-written book ” To defreeze the Kashmir problem, weaken India resolve and bring India to conference table without provoking general war “.
Pakistan start operation GIBRALTAR on August 1965, they dropped their paratroopers, special forces in Kashmir Valley and infiltration along CFL (Cease Fire Line).They wanted to capture strategic points like Bridges , Post Offices ,Telephone offices ,Administration offices and also manipulate Kashmiri peoples citizens against Indian Government and create a unrest against India and wanted to supply weapons to citizens in future but this plan of Pakistan was unsuccessful because peoples of Kashmir did not support this strategy of Pakistan and citizens caught many of Pakistani soldiers and handed over the Indians soldiers . So operation Gibraltar was fully failed.
After this real war started, Pakistan start operation GRAND SLAM with their whole army and power on September 1965 and attack India to capture AKHNOOR, Becuase Akhnoor is the only way to connect Punch and Rajouri, if Pakistan captured Akhnoor then they able to cut connection of India from Punch and Rajouri.Along with this Pakistan, Air forces started a bombing campaign in Kashmir but Indian army successfully repulsed the attack and saved Akhnoor and war was fully started in high level.Indian army attack on Punjab ( Pakistan area ) to bring Pakistan army under pressure and distract few Pakistanis army from Kashmir.Indian armored divisions enter in Pakistan and reached till outskirt of Lahore and Pakistan army attack on Khem Karan and want to reach Amritsar but the reply of this Indian army start the Fierce battle ( Asal Uttar ) to recapture Khem Karan and Indian army was successful in this plan.
After World War II this war had a large scale of tanks conflicts.Pakistan had new modern Patton tanks which supplied by America and India had old Sherman tanks but Indian armored division lead to the heavy loss for Pakistani army because the strategy of Indian army was very strong. but Pakistani air forces had superior aircraft ( Supplied by America ) and they inflicted huge damage on Indian military bases, Navy had not that much involvement, only Pakistani army attack on Dwarka sea area in Gujrat.
The Soviet Union and the USA mediated throughout September to stop the war because that time Cold War was in progress and they don’t want to heat the Cold War.After this Ceasefire was announced on 22 September 1965.
According to independent sources, 3000 Indian soldiers and 3800 Pakistani soldiers died in this war.
BUT QUESTION IS STILL ARRIVE THAT WHO WON THIS WAR?
Both countries claimed victory but neutral assessment said that India had upper hand in this war and Pakistan had the serious depletion of resources if a war had lasted even 1 month. Tashkent declaration, declared ‘ NO WAR GUILT ‘clause in this war.
WHAT IS TASHKENT DECLARATION?
After this war, On 10 Jan 1966 Soviet Union invited both sides leaders Lal Bahadur Shastri and Ayub Khan in Tashkent.And the decided return on a pre-war international boundary, returned to pre-war Cease Fire Line in Jammu and Kashmir, on this agreement India had the huge loss to give Haji Pir Pass to Pakistan, which is the very important location. Both country return Prisoners of war, restored diplomatic relation again and further start talk for peace.
Lal Bahadur Shastri the same night from heart attack
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