Green Revolution in India
Basic of Green Revolution in India
Green Revolution in India was a collective action to improve agriculture technology in India to produce a high output and become a self-sufficient country in food security. The introduction of High Yielding Variety (HIV) of seeds after 1965 by the great Indian geneticist MS Swaminathan which increased the proper use of irrigation system and fertilizers are known collectively as Green Revolution in India.
MS Swaminathan was known as Father of Green Revolution in India. This program was started with the help of Rockeffer foundation based in the US. MS was a very big follower of Norman Borlaug the greatest agriculture scientist, who is known as the Father of Green Revolution In the world.
Why do we need of Green revolution?
The situation of the Indian agriculture sector and Indian farmers was very disastrous from British rule. They were exploited and forced to grow particular products for export and they did not get any profit from their efforts. But the basic reason of green revolution are
1). World War II
During world war in 1945 Europe import food grains from India and other developing countries to fulfill their war requirements. Due to this, there was a very shortage of food grains in India. And after independence, the situation of Indian agriculture remains the same. So there was much need for the green revolution in India.
At that time lot of famines comes that was the result of the disastrous situation of Indian agriculture. Many peoples lost their lives at that time. Bengal famine in 1943 and feminine of 1965 was a slap on Indian policymakers.
3). First Two Five Year Plans
First two five years plans after independence had completely ignored the agriculture sector. Prime minister Nehru and Economist Mahanlobis focused only on the heavy goods sector that was the reason for worst agriculture status of the country.
4) Indo- China, and Indo- Pak war
Indo China in 1962 and indo Pak war in 1965 had fully crushed the stability of the country that realizes the need for an agricultural revolution in India.
All the above reasons and lack of self-sufficiency, India imported wheat from the USA but that was a very poor quality of wheat, After this incident, India and our that time prime minister realize the need of a revolution in the agriculture sector of India. And raises the voice “ Jai Jawan Jai Kisaan”. And the effort of MS Swaminathan and our policy maker resulted in a great achievement in agriculture sector called Green Revolution.
Achievements of Green Revolution in India
1). India became the largest producer of wheat, pulses, rice, spices and spice products. Production of food grains substantially increases from 81 million tones in the 3rd five-year plan to 203 million tones in the ninth five-year plan and next 212 million tones in 2003-04.
2). India has emerged as the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
3). After the green revolution, India becomes an exporter of wheat and rice and self-sufficiency was achieved. According to 2018 latest report, India is the largest exporter of rice in the world.
4). The industrial sector was also developed because green revolution increases the demand for Industrial inputs of agriculture like tractors, tube well, fertilizers and pesticides.
5). The living standard of farmers had improved in affected areas due to increase in production.
All the above points support the green revolution in India and highlight positive points but everything has a positive and negative impact and the Green revolution in India also have some major negative impacts.
Demerits of Green Revolution in India
Demerits of Green Revolution in India
1). Regional disparities:
The major demerits of green revolution are that it was only effected in northern parts of India like Punjab and Haryana, other parts of India had not enjoyed the benefits of the green revolution.
2). Benefited to big farmers only:
The technologies used in the green revolution was expensive, so that’s why the green revolution partially benefited big farmers only.
3). Problem with soil fertility :
Increase dependence of fertilizer and pesticides decrease the fertility of the soil. And the excess use of pesticides increases soil and water pollution.
4) Down in Return In Investment:
Due to the rapid increase in food grain’s output in the first several years drove down the price of food that causes harder for small farmers to make a profit.
All the above reasons highlight the demerits of Green Revolution in India but it does not mean that Green Revolution is worthless, this revolution was a very big achievement of our country in recent decades but with major demerits.
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