“History of Jammu and Kashmir”
Jammu & Kashmir is one of the Most Wonderful place of India, situated in the Northern part of India. Jammu and Kashmir is the solitary state in India which has a separate constitution. It is given a special place in the article 370 of part XXI(Temporary. Transitional and special Provision) of the Indian Constitution.
Let’s focus on small but Important History of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu & Kashmir is an integral state of India and it has a dominant position in the list of the states in the first schedule of the Constitution of India. Under the article (1) of the Indian Constitution, Jammu and Kashmir marked as an integral part of India.
Maharaja Hari Singh was considered as the man behind the Kashmir issue. He was the last ruler of Jammu & Kashmir. At the beginning, Maharaja Hari Singh didn’t join Jammu and Kashmir with India and Pakistan and tried to make it independent, but in 1947 Pakistan sent tribal infiltrators from its side to conquer Kashmir that made the Maharaja to Postulate India help. India gave a military help to Maharaja and made the traitors to driven back to Pakistan only after the Maharaja signed an Instrument of Accession on October 1947 with India. Under this Treaty, the state surrendered the three subjects – Defence, external affairs and communication with India.
The Government signed a deal in 1947 that the peoples of Jammu & Kashmir, would determine the internal constitution of the state because of this, the Article 370 was added to the Indian Constitution. Which became effective after 17th Nov 1952.
Article 370 is the very highlighted issue in India. This article makes Jammu & Kashmir unique and different from other Indian states. Lets read some silent features of Article 370.
(i) The state has its own constitution.
(ii) Dual citizenship is allowed in the state.
(iii) Order of supreme court is not Valid in the state
(iv) unlike other states, Jammu and Kashmir legislature has a 6-year a term.
(v) RTE and RTI, agencies -CBI are not permitted in J&K.
(vi) Union of India has no right to declare a Financial emergency (article 360).
(vii) The governor of the state is selected only by the advice of CM of J&K.
(viii) The Name and boundaries of the state cannot be changed by the parliament without the permission of the state legislature.
(ix) No outsider has a right to purchase land in the state.
(x) Part IV(Directive principles of state policy) and Part IVA (fundamental duties) of Indian Constitution are not applicable to Jammu and Kashmir.
(xi) If a woman marries a man of other states, she would have to lose her citizenship but if any woman marries a Pakistani Boy, the Pakistani boy gets Indian citizenship.
The official language of Jammu and Kashmir is Urdu. However, Kashmiri is the local language of Jammu & Kashmir. People living in Kashmir Valley speak Kashmiri. People living in Ladakh speak Ladakhi, whereas people in Jammu mostly speak Dogri. Hindi is mostly spoken by the Kashmiri Pandits and the Gujjar people of the state.
The high court of Jammu & Kashmir has limited power as compared to other high courts of India. It was established in the year of 1928. Lala Kanwar Sein was the First Chief Justice of the high court of Jammu & Kashmir.
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Report: Navneet Sinha
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